An Immunohistochemical study (IHC): “Evaluation of biological role of myofibroblast in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor, Dentigerous cyst, and Ameloblastoma”.
The present study has been embarked on to explore the presence of MFs using alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and also to relate their density in odontogenic cysts (OCs) and odontogenic tumors (OTs), which can be of considerable importance in predicting their possible biological behavior and growth potential.
For the present study, twenty paraffin‑embedded tissue blocks each one of Dentigerous cyst (DC), KCOT, and Ameloblastoma were chosen. The diagnosis of tissues selected was confirmed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. Tissue sections were examined and interpretation for the number of myofibroblasts using α‑SMA immunostaining was done.
The result suggested that KCOT has the highest number of myofibroblasts, whereas DC showed the lowest. Among the groups, there were significant differences between the myofibroblast counts among DC and KCOT and between DC and ameloblastoma, whereas the difference in counts was not statistically significant between KCOT and ameloblastoma. A positive correlation was observed between the myofibroblast count and the known biological behavior of the lesions.
This suggests that increased number of MFs in the stroma of KCOT and Ameloblastoma is directly proportional to their reported aggressive behavior, as compared to DC, which shows lesser number of MFs in this study and which reportedly has a lower growth potential when compared to KCOT and Ameloblastoma. This also confirms the role of stromal microenvironment in the growth and progression of aggressive lesions like KCOT and Ameloblastoma.