Within the field of Dentistry, clinical photographs are essential as a diagnostic tool, to monitor treatment progress, and for academic and medicolegal purposes. Dental clinical photographs consist of extraoral and intraoral photographs. Clinical photographs are taken by a professional medical photographer, Dentist or dental assistant .
With time, the means of obtaining measurements from clinical photographs have evolved with New technology beginning from projecting photographic slides on to a screen, using sliding calipers, or from scanned photographs and direct on-screen digitization.
NEED FOR CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHS
• Clinical Records
• To Communicate With the fellow Dentist
• Communication with the Patient & Parent
• Photographs as a learning tool
• Medico-legal requirements
PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
• In order to take a standard photograph, proper patient position is recommended.
• Accessories such as jewels, glasses and hearing aids should be removed before photographing.
• The camera should be placed parallel to the patient face.
• Patient must look straight into the camera without any tilting of head.
RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE SETTINGS FOR CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
1) Shutter speed 1/125
• Aperture for extraoral photographs f-8 to f-11
• Aperture for intraoral photographs, direct view f-32
• Aperture for intraoral photographs ,mirror view f-19 to f-16
• ISO 100
SIZE OF CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHS
Extraoral-length x width= 3.5”x5.5”
Intraoral-length x width= 5.5”x3.5”
Extraoral- 1. Frontal view-a. Frontal at rest
b. Frontal dynamic smile
c. Frontal posed smile
3.Three-quarter profile view
4.Submental view(worm’s eye view)
5. Bird’s eye view
2. Right and left buccal
3.Occlusal view-a. Maxilla
REQUIREMENTS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC SET-UP
1.Background- Sky blue for contrast/ white background with color coding for different stages
3.Retractors-Should not be visible in photographs
a.) cheek retractors
b.) lip retractors
4. Mirror-a. Side mirror
b. Occlusion mirror
The frame of photograph should have equal space on all sides.
IMPORTANCE OF CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
• Photometric analysis serves as a powerful method to address orthodontic malocclusion, establish treatment planning, evaluate surgical results and orthodontic outcome, and also study the facial growth.
• Use of photograph as a diagnostic aid was also established by many workers when they studied the impact of buccal corridor, lip line, or smile arc on facial attractiveness.
• Especially in the field of orthognathic surgery, where surgery can change the appearance of a face, 3D assessment is becoming very essential. Digital photography not only allows the clinician to plan the surgical procedures, but also aids in predicting the outcome.